1. Authentication of Source region
Blockchain technology can be used to validate the exact region from which the raw material, a.k.a., grapes used has been sourced from. This includes soil conditions, rain, climate under which grapes were grown. In addition, if chemical analysis (acidity, sugar content, etc.), is available during the source qualification process, the same could be captured on block-chain.
2. Grape variety classification
The actual classification of Grapes is based on experts and their sensory perception of a certain produce. Though there is some automation of chemical analysis and ‘electronic tongue’ techniques, such processes are beyond the scope of block-chain. Whatever process is followed by a grape grower or bulk consumer in classification of grapes, Block-chain technology comes in the picture in terms of uniquely stamping such batches electronically and such tagging or tokenization is traceable across the supply chain including details of professional sampler, location of classification, technique used etc. All other factors emanating from analysis be it mineral analysis, amino acid and protein profiles, polyphenolic profiles, presence of volatile compounds can be stored on blockchain.
3. Wine Age Validation
With time and ageing, Wine undergoes a variety of physical, chemical and bio-chemical changes. Most of such changes are beneficial. Certain crop years which have beneficial weather conditions also have certain contribution to the value of wine. Radioactivity measurements of specific isotopes are used to determine age of wine. However, once such age determination is done, the same could be stored on block-chain including the details of such tests, testing facility, date of analysis. Results from repeated / multiple tests by different agencies along the supply chain to independently assess such qualifications can also be stored on the block-chain helping retailers and customers view such analytical reports in a tamper-free, data secure reports from the block-chain.
4. Wine Production/Technology Validation
There are variety of wine production processes. The process compliance has an impact on both the compositional and sensorial aspects of the wine. Fraudulent claims could be made on process followed to appreciate the value of the wine produced and being marketed. Sparkling wine variety is valued based on what process/technology is used to introduce CO2 to wine. Amino acid analysis and isotopic analysis is done to identify the method. Findings of such analysis for a given batch or variety of wine can be stored on the Block-chain in a tamper free process. Based on the values determined from such analytic process, and storing findings on block-chain, the process, technology can be identified or even better, findings from chemical analysis could determine the value of the wine. Similar process could be followed for special varieties of wines like rose wines and non-alcoholic wines as well.
5. Cellar Storage and Transportation validation
During storage of wine in cellar, the temperature, humidity and other physical aspects could be regularly tracked and stored on the block-chain (periodic sampling). If there are thresholds (low and high water marks) which get crossed, and there is automation to capture such exception condition, the same could be integrated with alerts and notification which could get recorded on the block-chain. Absence of alerts, notification and periodic logs of such parameters on the blockchain assures storage standard compliance. This is applicable both at wholesale as well as retail storage and transportation.
6. Whole seller Wine Varieties and Stocks
Though this is not a primary objective of block-chain, since all other parameters of production, quantities, distribution is being monitored and tracked on block-chain, inventory of different products at different locations can be easily managed through block-chain as well. Alternately, block-chain can be used as a secondary system to validate stocks received and managed at various stages of wine supply-chain.
7. Time series Grape Produce Production and Cost (Auction/procurement)
Either by using statistical methods or AIML based techniques, time series calculations could forecast yields of different varieties of grapes taking into consideration various factors contributing to grape production. This can also be co-related with global trends, demand and supply helping grape growers expected market returns of specific varieties of grapes in different seasons of the year. The information when captured on block-chain and made available to all grape growers, democratizes fair prize practices in an open and transparent manner helping all stake-holders, without price gouging and also preventing any other fraudulent practices.